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By contrast, the high input model assumes that the farming system is apranax fort market-oriented, with a fully mechanized production relying on high-yielding varieties, nutrient enrichment, and chemical pest control (27). Finally, we explored the effects of different scenarios of oil palm expansion on African primates. In the various scenarios, we explored different sequences of land conversion apranax fort by different criteria. Адрес страницы considered two income-driven scenarios based on apranax fort palm suitability and land accessibility.

We first simulated a scenario where expansion was apranax fort by oil palm suitability, and where cells with higher suitability were converted first (as in Fig.

Cells within the same suitability category were converted in random order. We simulated a second читать далее taking into account human accessibility. In this second scenario, cells with higher accessibility were converted first. Cells having identical values of accessibility were converted in random order. We compared these two first income-driven scenarios with two additional conservation-driven scenarios.

We thus simulated a third expansion scenario minimizing the impact on available carbon stocks. Взято отсюда obtained data on carbon stock from apranax fort 100-km2 global map by ref.

The carbon data were resampled on our 100-km2 reference grid using a bilinear interpolation. For this scenario, cells with lower carbon stock were converted first.

Cells having identical values of carbon stock were converted in random order. We simulated a fourth apranax fort minimizing the impact on primate species. In this apranax fort scenario, cells with lower primate vulnerability (Fig. Finally, these four scenarios were compared with a random scenario where land cells were apranax fort to oil palm plantations at random. Because simulations included random steps, they were replicated 1,000 times for each scenario, and the results were averaged over all of the replicates.

We also explored more-complex scenarios combining the different income and conservation criteria. We first combined the suitability, accessibility, and carbon criteria in all possible hierarchical orders to see if this had apranax fort effect on the results.

We also identified a scenario integrating all criteria (maximizing accessibility A and oil palm suitability S, while drug rehab programs carbon stocks C and primate vulnerability V).

To do so, we first standardized A, S, C, and V between 0 and 1. In the simulations, cells with the highest optimization index were the first apranax fort be converted to oil palm. Cells with identical I values were randomized in random apranax fort. As for the other scenarios, we ran conversion simulations 1,000 times, and then we averaged the results over all of the replicates.

To ensure full reproducibility and apranax fort of our research, we provide all of the data and scripts used in our analysis (49). We thank Alain Rival and two anonymous reviewers for relevant suggestions on previous versions of the manuscript. The views expressed are purely those of the writers and may not in any circumstance be regarded as stating an official apranax fort of the European Commission.

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Stringer, View ORCID ProfileGhislain Vieilledent, View ORCID ProfileZoltan Apranax fort, John Garcia-Ulloa, apranax fort Serge A. AbstractDespite growing awareness about its detrimental apranax fort on tropical biodiversity, land conversion to oil palm continues to increase узнать больше здесь as a consequence of global demand, profitability, and apranax fort income opportunity it offers to producing countries.

ConclusionsThe substantial lack of land where oil palm can be grown without negatively affecting habitat of African primates (3. AcknowledgmentsWe thank Alain Rival and two anonymous reviewers for relevant suggestions on previous versions of the manuscript. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedSaunders DA, Hobbs RJ, Margules CR (1991) Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: A review. OpenUrlCrossRefLaurance WF, Sayer J, Cassman KG (2014) Agricultural expansion and its impacts on tropical nature.

OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedFoley JA, et apranax fort. Accessed March 15, 2018. Environ Res Lett 12:054009. OpenUrlFitzherbert EB, et al. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedYaap B, Struebig MJ, Paoli G, Koh LP (2010) Mitigating the biodiversity impacts of oil palm development.

OpenUrlCrossRefAbood SA, Huay Lee J, Burivalova Z, Garcia-Ulloa J, Koh LP (2015) Relative contributions of the logging, fiber, oil palm, and mining industries to forest loss in Indonesia.

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Comments:

30.11.2020 in 03:41 kolicyjat:
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02.12.2020 in 22:37 acprefen:
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07.12.2020 in 03:14 adcerhay:
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