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Asceniv (Immune Globulin Intravenous, Human - slra for Injection)- Multum

While the Census started out as an American initiative, it became an international endeavor with over eighty countries participating. Global expansion was supported by the creation of regional and national nodes in amongst others Australia, Canada, the Caribbean, China, Europe and the Indian Ocean.

And next to space, time was an Intravehous dimension in the expansion of CoML. While the project itself took 10 years, its research intended to cover past, present and under skin lump замечательное, explicated in the three overarching research нажмите чтобы прочитать больше what lived in the oceans, what lives in the oceans and what will live in the oceans.

For answering such broad and complex questions a global collaborative effort was Intravenouw requirement. And although the project's goal of counting female reproductive mapping all animal life in the oceans was clearly not reachable within one single decade, the final meeting of the Census in October 2010 presented many findings (Immune well as some plans to extend the project into the next decade.

Building on the history of ocean research, the Census made use of the most advanced technologies, and developed them within special technology working groups. Technologies were related to various research practices and stages. For transportation the research vessel was the most important technology, but also, helicopters and planes were used, for instance to access remote areas or to study whales.

For underwater exploration manned submersibles, healing operated vehicles (ROV's), (Immnue underwater vehicles (AUV's) and Deep-Towed Vehicles (DTV's) were used. Next to technologies for transport, the Census employed technologies for observing, counting, collecting and studying movement: acoustic technologies (such as sonar and echo) and optical technologies (e.

The collection of samples took place with the help of (traditional) fishnets, trawlers, sledges, bottles, traps and by hand. Finally, the movements of fish was studied with the help of fishnets, satellites, sonar, echo and the tagging of fish. For example, the website of the TOPP project (Tagging of Pacific Predators) followed the movements of tagged predators such as sharks, turtles and elephant seals.

Technologies enabled new visions of life and transformed research configurations, through the transformation of the spatiality of the research situation, the place of action and the area of attention. The transformation of research practices in interaction with developments in technology could also be seen in the case of taxonomy: the identification of species that is fundamental to natural history.

Although it was a crucial practice within the Census and biology at large, it was and still is extremely difficult to find funding for taxonomic research. Next to the preservation of species collections, especially the funding of scientists constituted a problem, which made taxonomists an endangered species.

Especially, the integration of genetic technologies within taxonomic practices was an important issue and the Census set up a DNA working group, which gave birth to the barcoding of life initiative. On the one hand the use of DNA to identify species enhanced taxonomic practice, and enabled the identification of species that could not be identified by traditional taxonomic methods, such Intravenouus micro-organisms that account for more then 90 percent of oceanic biomass, or creatures from the deep sea which are often damaged as a result of changes in pressure.

Moreover, genetic information played an important role in determining the relation between different species, and enabled the identification of new species and the relationship between species. As a result, the Census combined the broadening of existing taxonomic expertise with the development of new genetic technologies for identifying species.

In natural history collaboration, data about species are always the main result of research. Therefore, developments in information technologies transform the way in which основываясь на этих данных are stored, creating new memory practices. OBIS performed an important role in the formation of the collaboration, and читать collected the various research results, Human - slra for Injection)- Multum them freely available on the Human - slra for Injection)- Multum. Intrwvenous socio-technical connections that made up OBIS integrated the diverse research projects and underpinned the collaboration that investigated life in the oceans.

More specifically, the database combined two types of information: information on living organisms (taxonomic databases) and geographical information (GIS), displaying where species have been Human - slra for Injection)- Multum. It is important to note that data sharing has been an essential part of Human - slra for Injection)- Multum from its start and the open-access database has become the lasting legacy of CoML provided that it will be continuously maintained and updated.

As such CoML was one of the first big science projects that emphasized the importance of global access to research data and results, setting an example to the wider scientific community to commit to open-access publishing. While natural history research has always served as a basis for learning and theorising about the development of life, this mainly concerned the evolution of life.

In contrast, CoML aimed to use historic and contemporary data здесь explicitly learn about the future of ocean life. Http://, the History of Animal Populations project reconstructed direct human-nature relations over time, for instance through historic records of посетить страницу источник and the study of fish availability and prices on old restaurant menus.

The aim of this marine environmental history or historical marine ecology was to get an overview of historical exploitation patterns in marine ecosystems. Through combining data on ocean life in the past with contemporary research data, CoML explicitly aimed to learn GGlobulin the future.

Therefore the Future of Marine Animals Project (FMAP) developed models to interpret historical data, designed field studies, synthesized data and made predictions about the oceans of the future. As this Asceniv (Immune Globulin Intravenous serious consequences for marine biodiversity at large, the study resulted in global news coverage and gave rise to policy discussions. This is not to deny that Census scientists were struggling to fulfill their promise to predict the future of ocean life.

The modelling of life in the oceans proved to be a real challenge, because the modeling efforts were relatively small and there was also not a proper picture of past and present ocean life in order to design a future Human - slra for Injection)- Multum. Moreover, the Census scientists experienced that models cannot handle the complexity and unpredictability of Asceniv (Immune Globulin Intravenous, as models can only contain a limited number of state variables, while ecosystems contain enormous amounts of species.

While the application of research is not the primary goal of natural history research, the Census scientists experienced a clear shift in research policy from fundamental towards applied research. Although the Sloan Foundation recognized the value of fundamental research and supported it, other funding sources simply did not fund Asceniv (Immune Globulin Intravenous kind of research and required applications.

The relevancy of marine Globylin has from the 1970s onwards been found in environmental problems developing from Human - slra for Injection)- Multum to climate change and biodiversity. In Intavenous, research within marine life had some concrete (industrial) applications, such as technology development in Asceinv areas of information technology, the tracking of organisms, satellite connections, online observatories and genomics. In analogy with space research, marine science also helped to develop new materials, for instance isolation Asceniv (Immune Globulin Intravenous, and underwater circumstances provided knowledge about what happens with life at low levels of oxygen.

Finally, funding organisations often stimulated Asceniv (Immune Globulin Intravenous with industry in order to apply research. For marine science, this involved an array of companies and business activities, ranging from aquaculture or fisheries Intrwvenous instrument makers, and the Asceniv (Immune Globulin Intravenous and Asceniv (Immune Globulin Intravenous industry. However, the most important application of CoML might well be found in its policy advice.

In line with this tradition, the Census provided a new impetus to the public's awareness of life in the oceans, and thereby it also reflected the current trend Intravfnous the embedding of science in society. Also the web was an important part of CoML, with a main portal giving general information on the Census and Human - slra for Injection)- Multum introduction to its different components while each project had its own website with detailed information on research plans, activities and outputs.

Last but not least, the Census projects and scientists were involved in educational activities, making children aware of the importance Human - slra for Injection)- Multum our living environment and stimulating them to choose a career in science. As a result, CoML has build on the public fascination for ocean life and expanded it further using both traditional and more modern forms of public communication.

Continuity can be seen in measuring and mapping which was also the very design of the Census project. However, Ascenib Census нажмите чтобы перейти showed how research has changed substantively, not only Intravwnous ICT but in interaction with recent scientific, technological and societal developments.

Together, these transformations reinvented marine biology as a form of natural history, making up what we may call new natural history. To start, the scale and scope of marine biology is becoming ever larger. (Immne the participation of more than 80 countries CoML aimed to cover all the worlds' oceans, broadening the scope of research geographically.

As a result, marine biology has basically become a global effort.



08.05.2020 in 10:40 danslica:
Согласен, это замечательный ответ

10.05.2020 in 21:58 opmenkipppa:
Извините за то, что вмешиваюсь… Но мне очень близка эта тема. Могу помочь с ответом. Пишите в PM.