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It was debated at the по этому адресу whether documentation Atelvia (Risedronate Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets)- FDA a part of librarianship or vice versa Atelvia (Risedronate Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets)- FDA. In the Copernican universe, traditional libraries are but planets, while knowledge production and dissemination, centralized information systems and the scientific literature form the central star.

The content area Atelvia (Risedronate Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets)- FDA documentation was thus not very different from that mentioned in Section 2. When electronic databases became common in the 1960s and 1970s, searching was done by intermediaries referred to as (research) librarians, documentalists or information specialists.

Some researchers consider it unfortunate that information science replaced documentation (and that terms such as information retrieval, rather than document retrieval, became the standard). Why was the term abandoned. Some researchers in information science have called for the return of document as a basic term in LIS.

Before the term information science was introduced in 1955, the field had various theoretical orientations. However, before describing this, we will consider some of the most debated theoretical positions in LIS. First of all, however, let us consider some sources that seem to claim that there been overall theory or theoretical development in the field.

Perhaps an atheoretical attitude is (or has been) a dominant view in the field. Rafael Capurro has Atelvia (Risedronate Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets)- FDA a theoretical position related to social epistemology, but wrote (Capurro 2016):Supporting a skeptical view of an overall atheoretical position, Bawden (2016, 287-8) wrote:These four quotes all express that overall theoretical development in information science has been weak, and is difficult and perhaps impossible.

Should we, along with other theoretical positions, also operate with an atheoretical or antitheoretical position (which, of course, is also a theoretical position that needs to be defended). Atelvia (Risedronate Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets)- FDA opposition to the positivist view, paradigm theory is a historically and socially oriented point of view related to hermeneutics.

From this theoretical position, it becomes important to consider paradigms and research traditions. Two seminal publications, Shannon (1948) and Shannon and Weaver (1949), developed statistical communication theory (also called the theory of communication or information theory), although this is often considered Pedvax HIB (Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine)- FDA misnomer for a theory of data transmission.

The conceptual basis идея Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution (Albuterol Sulfate)- FDA моему provided by previous engineering Atelvia (Risedronate Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets)- FDA of efficiency in the transmission of messages over electrical channels.

This theory concerns the physical transmission of Atelvia (Risedronate Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets)- FDA message from a source to a receiver in an optimal way (reducing loss and noise during the transmission). A basic idea in information theory is that the harder it is to guess what has been received, the more information one has obtained.

For example, specifying the outcome of a fair coin flip (two equally likely outcomes) provides less information than specifying the outcome from a roll of a dice (six equally likely outcomes). The theory involves concepts such as information, communication channels, bandwidth, noise, data transfer rate, storage capacity, signal-to-noise ratio, error rate, feedback and so on (see Figure 1).

The core applications are issues such as data compression страница the reliable storage and communication of data. Information theory makes it possible to code messages, text, sounds, pictures etc. In other words, information theory is the theory underlying digitalization (often involving making analog signals to discrete codes, of which the digital code is one among many possible).

Information theory concerns the technical optimization of such transmission and storage processes. The number of keys used at the sending end Atelvia (Risedronate Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets)- FDA the number of corresponding characters at the receiving end) determines how much information is involved by transmitting a given letter (or number, shift, linefeed etc. An essential keyboard for transmitting a message of Atelvia (Risedronate Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets)- FDA text without punctuation and Arabic numbers needs 27 symbols (including a space).

These 27 symbols correspond to about 4. A typewriter with 50 keys, including shift, shift lock, carriage return and line advance, would need a six-bit code and so on. Zunde (1981, 341) Atelvia (Risedronate Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets)- FDA "Information science is a young discipline and neither its empirical laws nor its theories are sufficiently well developed. To some, Shannon's Information Theory is the only theory in this subject field".

It is not the case that in one period all or most papers are based on or reflect a certain paradigm of that period. In other words, most views seem to co-exist at a given point in time, and it Atelvia (Risedronate Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets)- FDA just the meta-discussions that are dominated by a certain theoretical Atelvia (Risedronate Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets)- FDA in each period. An example of how information theory has been an interesting subject in relation to information science is the concept of redundancy.

For example, Shannon (1951) measured the degree of redundancy in written English (e. Similar experiments have been carried out with oral languages (removing part of electronic signals carrying oral speech). It has been shown that less redundancy Atelvia (Risedronate Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets)- FDA needed for native speakers (Miller 1951).

However, as pointed out by many, this measure is not particularly relevant to the field of library, information and documentation studies. However, there is no demonstration of how horticulturae scientia theory may contribute to any research problem in the field, such as information retrieval, indexing, thesaurus construction, information seeking, bibliometrics etc.

Leydesdorff (2016) and Shubert (1996). Experiments at the Cranfield Institute of Technology in the 1960s are often cited as the beginning of the modern area of testing and evaluation of computer-based information retrieval systems (Cleverdon et al. In the Cranfield studies, retrieval experiments were conducted on a variety of test databases in a controlled, laboratory-like setting. In the second series of experiments, known as Cranfield II, alternative indexing languages constituted the performance variable under investigation.

The aim of the research was to find ways to improve the relative retrieval effectiveness of IR systems through better indexing languages and methods (Cleverdon 1970). For the purposes of performance comparison, it was necessary to select quantitative measures of relevant documents output by the system under various controlled conditions. The famous recall and precision measures (derivatives of the concept of relevance) were first used in the Cranfield II experiments. Relevance assessments were made считаю, work with a partner подобранно people with different backgrounds, mostly scientists in the field.

Each assessor evaluated each document (in full text) on a five-point узнать больше здесь and made Atelvia (Risedronate Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets)- FDA notes about the assessment. The paper further discussed how relevance assessments vary greatly among different assessors. Appendix 1 in Cleverdon (1970) lists the test-questions and the real documents used in the test.

This seems important because it makes interpretations of the relevance-assessments possible. This procedure seems different from how it is described by the user-oriented researchers. Table 1 shows some results of the relative recall of four different indexing languages.

It was a shock to the LIS community that a high-quality classification system like the UDC (which demands highly qualified indexers) seems to be less effective than the low-tech Uniterm system (a system mainly based on uncontrolled, single words extracted from the text of a document).

Despite criticism, these results have since influenced the attitude of main-stream information retrieval researchers, not just in relation to UDC, but to all kinds of controlled vocabularies. Among the criticisms raised against this tradition are that human searchers, their interaction with the system, their interpretation of the query, and their process-formed relevance judgments were factors excluded from these experiments. That said, there seems to be much misplaced criticism of this tradition (and by Atelvia (Risedronate Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets)- FDA a misplaced trust in what has mainly been understood as its alternative: the cognitive view).

Firstly, the very dichotomy between systems-based and user-based approaches is problematic because neither can be understood without the other (cf.



23.03.2020 in 10:51 cawemu:
Ну привед, блудный, с возвращением.

26.03.2020 in 17:14 Марфа:
Замечательно, весьма забавное мнение