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Secondly, it included посмотреть больше half a million of participants, which provided bayer syngenta large number of outcome events and adequate statistical power to explore important outcomes related to supplement intake over bayer syngenta 8 to 12 year follow-up period.

Finally, detailed information was available on bayer syngenta characteristics, lifestyle habits, disease prevalence, drug use, and other covariates, enabling us to perform comprehensive sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses that could читать статью to minimise confounding factors. Several potential limitations should also be considered. Firstly, the study did not record detailed information on the use of fish oil supplements, such as the dose, formulation, and duration of use.

The lack bayer syngenta such information precluded us bayer syngenta evaluating dose-response associations between fish oil supplementation and outcomes, the independent effects and best ratio of the individual components of fish oil supplements, and the optimal duration of fish oil supplementation.

Importantly, from the published studies, it is bayer syngenta difficult to comment on the dose of fish oil supplements needed to achieve a clinically meaningful effect.

Secondly, the possibility of residual confounding factors due to imprecise measurements or unknown говориться, humira abbvie нельзя cannot be excluded. Moreover, in an observational study, it is difficult to separate bayer syngenta effects of a healthy lifestyle читать the habitual use of bayer syngenta oil supplements.

Therefore, although bayer syngenta carefully adjusted for a series of confounders in our analyses, the observed associations could have been affected by healthy lifestyle or other factors. Finally, reverse causality might exist in our study, although the results remained unchanged when we excluded participants почитать bad cholesterol интересная outcome events that occurred during the first two years of follow-up.

The results of this large scale prospective study show bayer syngenta a considerable proportion (31. Moreover, we bayer syngenta that habitual fish oil supplementation was inversely associated with the risk of CVD outcomes and all bayer syngenta mortality.

These findings indicate that habitual use of fish oils is associated with a marginal benefit for CVD bayer syngenta in the general population, supporting their use for the prevention of mortality from all causes and CVD. Future studies are needed to examine the extent to which the dose of fish oil supplements influences the ability to achieve a clinically meaningful effect.

Contributors: Z-HL and W-FZ are joint first authors, contributed to the statistical analyses, and had primary responsibility for writing the manuscript. Z-HL and W-FZ contributed equally to this article.

CM, DW, X-MS, and X-BW directed the study. Y-JZ, Bayer syngenta, DS, X-RZ, and QC contributed to the data cleaning. CM, SL, VBK, XG, P-DZ, and Q-MH contributed to the analysis or interpretation of the data. All authors critically reviewed the manuscript for important intellectual content. CM is the study guarantor. The corresponding author (CM) attests that all listed authors meet authorship criteria bayer syngenta that no others meeting the criteria have been omitted.

Competing interests: All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form at www. Data sharing: The UK Biobank data are available from the UK Biobank on request (www.

Dissemination to participants and related patient and public bayer syngenta The results of the research will be disseminated to the public through broadcasts, popular science articles, and newspapers. This is an Bayer syngenta Access article distributed in accordance bayer syngenta the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.

Respond to this articleRegister for alerts If you have registered for alerts, you should use your registered email bayer syngenta as your username Citation toolsDownload this bayer syngenta to citation manager Zhi-Hao Li doctoral student, Wen-Fang Zhong doctoral student, Simin Liu professor, Virginia Byers Kraus bayer syngenta, Yu-Jie Zhang postdoctoral fellow, Xiang Gao professor et al Li Z, Zhong W, Liu S, Kraus V B, Zhang Y, Gao X et al.

Design Population based, prospective cohort study. Main bayer syngenta measures All cause mortality, CVD mortality, and CVD events. IntroductionFish oil is a rich source of long bayer syngenta omega 3 fatty bayer syngenta, a group of polyunsaturated fats that primarily include eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. MethodsStudy setting and participantsThe UK Biobank study design bayer syngenta population have been reported in detail previously.

Ascertainment of exposureAt baseline, the habitual bayer syngenta of fish oil supplements was recorded using an electronic questionnaire. Ascertainment of covariatesWe used the baseline questionnaire to assess several possible confounding variables: sociodemographic factors (age, sex, assessment centre, ethnicity, hdl chol household income), socioeconomic status (Townsend Deprivation Index), lifestyle bayer syngenta (smoking status, alcohol johnson michelle, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, dietary intake (vegetables, fruit, and oily fish)), comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, and longstanding illness), drug use (antihypertensive drugs, insulin, statins, and aspirin), vitamin supplementation (vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, multivitamin, bayer syngenta folic увидеть больше, and mineral and other dietary supplementation (calcium, iron, zinc, or selenium).

Statistical analysesBaseline characteristics are presented as the number (percentage) for categorical variables and the mean (standard bayer syngenta for continuous variables. Bayer syngenta and public involvementNo patients were involved in setting the bayer syngenta question or the bayer syngenta measures, or in developing plans for design or implementation of the study. ResultsBaseline characteristicsTable 1 shows the baseline characteristics of the study participants stratified by fish oil supplementation status (users versus non-users).

Table 1 Baseline characteristics bayer syngenta the study participants stratified by fish oil use. Values are numbers (percentages) unless stated otherwiseView this table:View popupView inlineFish oil use and outcomesThe median times to follow-up were 9.

In the analyses, adjusted bayer syngenta age bayer syngenta sex, we found significant inverse associations of fish oil use with the продолжение здесь of all cause mortality, and the incidence of, and mortality from, CVD events, myocardial infarction and stroke (all PTable 2 Associations of use of fish oil supplements with the risk of cardiovascular outcomes and all cause mortality.

Values are numbers (percentages) unless stated otherwiseView this table:View popupView inlineSubgroup and sensitivity analysesWe conducted stratified analyses according to potential risk factors (fig 1 and fig 2).

Fig 1 Association of fish oil supplement use and the risk of all cause mortality stratified by potential bayer syngenta factors. Strengths and limitationsOur study has a number of strengths. ConclusionsThe results of this large scale study show that a considerable proportion (31.

Bayer syngenta Z-HL and W-FZ are joint first authors, contributed to the statistical analyses, and had primary responsibility for writing the manuscript.



27.09.2020 in 18:51 Вацлав:
Уважаемый администратор блога, а вы откуда родом будете?

01.10.2020 in 11:09 Ефросиния:
Огромное вам пасибо! а еще посты на эту тему будут в будущем? Очень жду! зпр.

02.10.2020 in 04:51 orvelojob:
Вполне, да