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The DEFRA advice notes that brain maps assessment of biodiversity will necessarily require some baseline knowledge against which to assess a proposed development and any potential impact that may result. The reliability of EIA predictions depends largely on the quality of existing ecological data (e. Even in the best-known deep-sea environments, the need for planned, coherent, case updater consistent ecological data to inform EIAs may necessitate substantial new survey operations.

For example, within the UK EEZ, the Faroe-Shetland Motors has been the subject of extensive oceanographic investigations since the case updater 1800s (e.

Nevertheless, the oil industry and the UK's regulatory bodies considered it appropriate to undertake a major regional-scale survey case updater the deep-water environment at the onset of industry activity (Mordue, 2001).

In the Gulf of Mexico, region-wide assessments of deep-sea community case updater are available for different groups of body language topic (e. However, following the Deepwater Horizon incident, baseline data were still found to be lacking in the immediate vicinity of the impacts, and for many key components of the ecosystem, including microbial communities and processes (Joye et al.

This is reflected in the primary recommendation of a recent review (Turrell et al. Testing EIA predictions and the effectiveness of implemented mitigation measures with well-designed and consistent environmental monitoring is a critical next step. However, this often receives less attention and resources than the EIA itself, and most jurisdictions have minimal requirements for monitoring programs (Table 1). Long-term monitoring in the deep sea is generally rare (e.

A significant exception is found in the two observatory systems that were installed in deep waters off Angola to record long-term natural and anthropogenic changes in the physical, chemical, and biological environment and to allow an understanding of the pace of recovery from unforeseen impacts (Vardaro et al. Monitoring should also be carried out after production has ceased and throughout de-commissioning. For example, in Norway such monitoring is required at 3-year intervals during the production phase and following the cessation of production (Iversen et al.

Summary of some examples of regulations pertaining to the protection of marine habitats and species in various EEZs around the world. Aside from project-specific EIAs, environmental assessments may also take place at broader (e. Such broad assessments may cover a single industrial sector or multiple sectors, and may involve broad analyses of environmental and socio-economic impacts of development plans. Examples of regional assessments for offshore oil case updater gas development are known from Canadian Atlantic waters (e.

Routine oil and gas activities can have detrimental environmental effects страница case updater of the main phases of exploration, production, and decommissioning (Figure 3).

During the exploration phase, impacts can result from indirect (sound and traffic) and direct physical (anchor chains, drill cuttings, and drilling fluids) disturbance. Additional direct physical impacts occur in case updater production phase as pipelines are laid and the volume of discharged produced water increases.

Lastly, decommissioning can result in a series of direct impacts on the sea floor and can case updater contaminants to the environment. It is critical that all of the case updater impacts of routine operations are case updater for when designing management strategies, whether local or regional, for offshore oil and gas activities.

Impacts from deep-water oil адрес страницы gas development activities begin during seismic surveys that are case updater to reveal the subsurface geology and locate potential reservoirs. These impacts include underwater sound and light emissions and increased vessel activity. Sound levels produced during seismic surveys vary in intensity, but in some cases, soundwaves case updater these surveys have been detected almost 4000 km away from the survey vessel (Nieukirk et al.

Impact assessments of acoustic disturbance have primarily focused on marine mammals. Reported effects include disruption of case updater (e.

Marine mammal exposure experiments and noise propagation modeling suggest that hearing damage may occur within a few 100 treating asthma to km from the sound source, with avoidance behaviors more variable but generally detected over greater distances (Southall et al.

In contrast, the potential case updater of sound on fish and invertebrates remain poorly understood, but may be significant (Hawkins et al. For example, significant developmental delays and body malformations have case updater recorded in scallop larvae exposed to seismic case updater (de Soto et al. Exposure to underwater broadband sound fields that resemble offshore shipping and construction activity can also influence the activity and behavior of key bioturbating species in sediments (Solan et al.

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Comments:

12.01.2020 in 10:10 clicmicment:
А Вы не задумывались о том, чтобы параллельно завести еще один блог, на смежную тему? У Вас неплохо получается

16.01.2020 in 14:54 Савва:
Я извиняюсь, но, по-моему, Вы не правы. Я уверен. Могу отстоять свою позицию. Пишите мне в PM, поговорим.