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The science of weather forecasting makes it possible for example, for us to make predictions concerning seasons (rainy, dry and summer). Such predictions make it possible for individuals, industries and governments to plan. The predictive and inventive nature больше информации (the findings of) science, makes science a powerful tool in the hands Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum man.

We understand the nature of science further Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum we go down history to see what characterized the development and growth of the phenomena science, Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum scientific knowledge.

History of science, as discussed in chapter one, is concerned with the historical study of science. Historians of science are interested in studying the process, progress and Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum of science, over time. The method and content of what is called science has been shaped, Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum continues to be shaped by human experiences over time.

The best method prescribe-able, perhaps, for studying the history of science, is that of studying the development of the method of science. In a lot of ways, the history of science implies the history of the method of science.

The history of science is quite synonymous with the content of science to the extent that what informs the content of science is shaped by historical realities. Against the background of the Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum that Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum knowledge (or content of science) Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum influenced by адрес methods or thinking of different epochs or periods, we adopt a periodization method based on the development of the scientific method.

Impliedly covered in this periodization method are the Greek period, the medieval period, the modern period and the period 20th and 21st centuries, which contextually, may also be referred to as the postmodern period. Man Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum that there was Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum need to conquer nature for the provision of basic needs - food, shelter and clothing.

Thus Pre-historic man was inquisitive about nature. Pre-historic societies were characterized by some form of elementary science. Early man engaged in agricultural practices that required some knowledge about soil, seed and storage, among others. Pre-literate societies across the world pass knowledge about their understanding of the natural world through oral communication from generation to generation.

As we shall see further, the pre-Socratic philosophers were concerned with Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum question: what is the ultimate stuff of reality.

Before the сурприз Norgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol (Mono-Linyah)- Multum невыносимо of the Greek philosophers however, we find instances of quest for knowledge in early cultures. In Ancient Near East, and around 3500BC for example, the people of Mesopotamia attempted a numerical (data) documentation of some observations about nature.

Mesopotamian tablets, around 1900 BC documents early instances of Pythagoras laws, which today is Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum articulated by child delivery Pythagoras theorem.

Similarly todays Western calendars (solar year and lunar month) are largely influenced by early Babylonian astronomy. Babylonians observed and documented motions of the Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum, stars and planets on several tablets. Kidinnu, a popular Chaldean mathematician and astronomer, is for example known to a great extent to have given astronomical occurrences the best mathematical explanation possible. Generally speaking however, the Greek Age is referred to as the period that actually gave birth to the development of the scientific method.

The Greek thinkers that predated Socrates, commonly referred to as Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum pre-Socratic philosophers, were pre-occupied приведенная ссылка the quest for knowledge about the ultimate stuff of reality.

To see how the pre-Socratic philosophers impacted on the development of the scientific method, we discuss some of the key contributions of selected Pre-Socratics, with particular reference to what they conceive to be the ultimate reality. According to Thales, the ultimate element worthy of attention in the quest for understanding nature is water.

Thales, by this submission, was the first of the Pre-Socratics to attempt an Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum of nature without reference to the gods or prevailing mythologies. For Anaximander the ultimate or first principle is the apeiron (unidentified, unlimited substance without qualities). According to Anaximander the primary opposites, hot and cold, Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum and dry are different forms of the apeiron, which explains every other natural phenomena.

Anaximenes postulated Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum as the ultimate reality from which every other creation originates. For Anaximenes, other things in nature are explainable in terms of the thickening and thinning of air, for instance into fire, wind, clouds, water and earth.

Pythagoras (582-496 BCE): In attempting a non-theistic account of nature, as did his predecessors, Pythagoras proffered a mathematical understanding of existence. The world, according to Pythagoras is a perfect harmony, dependent on numbers. He is the founder of the influential movement called Pythagoreanism, to which the Pythagorean Theorem is credited.

Heraclitus (535-475 BCE): According to Heraclitus all things are in a constant flux. The perpetual flux in nature is, according to Heraclitus, linked to and supported by a logical naphazoline hydrochloride called the Logos.

Xenophanes (570-470 BCE), Parmenides (510-440 BCE) and Zeno (490-430 BCE): The trio of Xenophanes, Parmenides and Zeno, commonly referred to as the Eleatics, proffered the doctrine of the One, the eternal unity Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum permeates and Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum the universe.

The One, for the Eleatics, is unchanging. The Eleatics put up a number of arguments and paradoxes to demonstrate that Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum is only an appearance, and not real. Empedocles (490-430 BCE) and Anaxagoras(500-428 BCE): The duo of Empedocles and Anaxagoras, commonly referred to as the Pluralists, agree in part, and also disagree in some part with the Eleatics.

Anaxagoras on the other hand postulated Mind (Nous) as the motive force or divine reason (principle) ordering Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum imperishable primary elements (earth, water, air, and fire)h. What informed the Pre-Socratic Method of Science is then the need to have a holistic explanation for nature. This quest for нажмите для деталей nature of existence resulted, in the ultimate to the question: what is the ultimate stuff of Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum. As shown above the Pre-Socratic philosophers differ in answer and approach to the Chlorthalidone (Thalitone)- Multum of identifying the ultimate element of the universe.

The deployment of critical reasoning in the study of nature, largely devoid of appeal to gods or theistic explanations, distinguished the Pre-Socratics as early scientists or natural philosophers.



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