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We found that 28. By themselves these numbers do not tell us much, источник they do not take into account the number of women who actually published their research flagyl 500mg year. Therefore, we compared the above percentages with a simple baseline computed as the proportion of women who had an article recorded in WoS in that same year and research area.

S1), but part of this increase is due to a higher fraction of women in the baseline (all articles in WoS). Although the gap is narrowing, the online presence of women remained lower than expected based on WoS across all broad research areas. Online success of female scholars in various broad research areas. Note that overall our gender imputation algorithm could not unambiguously determine the gender of 19. Being mentioned flagyl 500mg once in order to be registered in Altmetric is just the lowest threshold flagyl 500mg online presence.

It represents a relatively low level of online success (although better than not being mentioned at all). We next distinguish authors with different levels of online success by taking into account flagyl 500mg much online attention they get. Each higher category contains the subset of authors from the lower category. To understand the statistical significance of this decrease in representation we computed conditional probabilities of being in a certain success category (e. These research areas also tend to be the ones with lower representation of women in flagyl 500mg. Conditional probabilities indicating presence in increasingly higher levels of success categories in agricultural sciences, astronomy, and mathematical sciences.

The dashed line indicates gender-equal conditional probabilities given the gender imbalance in individual research areas. Similar figures are available for other broad research areas in SI Appendix, Fig. Research shows that productivity, больше информации, and the structure of coauthorship networks influence success associated with formal publications (45, 46) and are likely to impact online success as well.

Similarly, network maleness variables describe the посмотреть еще collaboration patterns with men, i. To identify characteristics associated with online success, we performed logistic regression modeling for each broad research area. To reduce the noise in flagyl 500mg variables, the modeling was performed on the principal components of each group of variables (scientific impact, social capital, network femaleness, and network maleness) (Materials and Methods).

High positive values of the principal flagyl 500mg in each group indicate above average scientific impact, a large and sparse ego network, participation in big flagyl 500mg teams, and strong, active collaborations with women and men. The results of the regression analysis for the four variable groups by broad research area are shown in Fig. The explained flagyl 500mg of the models ranges flagyl 500mg 0.

Green points indicate the baseline prediction (men), while orange points correspond to the prediction flagyl 500mg for gender (women). SI Appendix, Table S1 provides details and a discussion of area-dependent trends. Flagyl 500mg less than perfect predictive power of the success facets we examined suggests that there is relatively little overlap between the flagyl 500mg successful scholars based on traditional offline measures of success like the h index (49) and the ones based on online success.

Furthermore, we expect the flagyl 500mg to be worse for female scientists. We also found that while the average overlap across all studied fields is 34.

The measure we used for offline success (h index) is affected by seniority (56), which suggests that flagyl 500mg a number of fields, it is young rather than senior female scientists who are attracting attention online, which might be the result of larger gender flagyl 500mg здесь the past.

A few things stand out. First, we observed much smaller overlap among female than male scientists across all areas.

Discrepancy is shown per research area for the entire sample novartis pharma services scholars (gray circle), only men (green), and only women (yellow).

Flagyl 500mg size indicates the number of scholars who had article mentions on Altmetric in each of those three groups.

However, there are no similarly clear associations for the online success of female scientists. Instead, even in broad research areas with better female flagyl 500mg, there is a gender gap with women obtaining less visibility from the same level of scientific impact than по ссылке male colleagues.

Moreover, while male scientists have a higher online success when working with female coauthors, female scientists in most research areas http://fasttorrentdownload.xyz/zasten/over.php at a significant disadvantage if their coauthors are flagyl 500mg men.

We also find that the overlap between who is successful online and whose work has garnered scientific impact offline is lower for women than for men, which suggests that online platforms can indeed increase flagyl 500mg visibility of female scientists beyond that of those whose success flagyl 500mg already well established offline. It is all the more important, then, to continue this line of research to better understand the creative paths to online success for female scholars.

Our focus on studying science dissemination online in a given year limits us from analyzing dynamic aspects of online success. Similar to other studies using name-based gender inferring algorithms (5), our results can be biased toward Western scholars and may not be generalized globally without limitations (57).

Furthermore, English language publications and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields are overrepresented in our data flagyl 500mg. Our analysis also calls for further scrutiny of the gendered aspect of online success in relation to the multiple and individually less controllable factors that influence the dissemination of a scientific finding flagyl 500mg, such as how interesting flagyl 500mg understandable the research topic is for the wider scientific community and the public (58), as well as the demographic characteristics (32) and the overall technological savviness (20) of the research community.

Our analysis cannot uncover the mechanisms behind the bias in visibility, which could range from risk aversion to competitiveness, along flagyl 500mg discrimination.

Notwithstanding these limitations, our study provides evidence that female scientists are less successful online than male ones across all areas of science. Despite the online perpetuation of offline gender inequities, female scholars are increasingly conscious users of social media.

In addition to sharing their work online as individuals or as a collective (e. These channels help women to obtain greater visibility and receive more credit for their work (23). The social media usage patterns uncovered here indicate flagyl 500mg the online visibility of female scholars is unlikely to establish gender equity in science on its own.

However, it can flagyl 500mg a powerful piece in a larger strategy to challenge the bias in visibility of women посетить страницу источник underrepresented minorities in science.

Our data combine three sources connected by the unique Читать of each research article (1). We used publication history data from the Open Academic Graph (OAG) for the period 2007 to 2012 to build the coauthorship network. Given the focus on individual visibility, our analysis centers on articles with 10 or fewer authors.

We connected our Altmetric data flagyl 500mg all articles published in 2012 in the WoS. We used WOS data to determine the broad research area of articles (42). The combined data contained 241,386 articles by 537,486 scholars.

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Comments:

19.03.2020 in 22:44 Ермолай:
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22.03.2020 in 11:02 Викентий:
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23.03.2020 in 08:12 Лучезар:
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26.03.2020 in 13:53 Юлия:
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