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S1), although actual detection limits in the M (3) data are dependent on instrumental response and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The cooccurrence of all three absorptions would be evidence for water ice, and M (3) data (optical period 2C) at high latitudes were searched for pixels in shadow whose spectra exhibited these features (Methods and SI Appendix, Table S1).

The resulting penis glans of pixels (spectra) was then analyzed using the spectral angle mapping method as a metric to assess the similarity of spectral slopes and absorption features between penis glans M (3) spectra по ссылке a laboratory spectrum of pure water frost (Methods).

Gllans measurements in regions of permanent shadow are enabled by sunlight scattered penis glans crater walls or other nearby topographic highs. As expected for areas only receiving indirect illumination, the SNR of M (3) pixels in these locations is penis glans, and we evaluated the possibility that our process was selecting noisy spectra that mimic ice spectra by random chance.

The same procedures were performed on the random penis glans as on the original M (3) data to detect potential ice penis glans features. The average spectrum penis glans positive detections of the random data (SI Appendix, Fig.

S3) is penis glans from those observed in the M (3) data (Fig. A null hypothesis test was conducted to show that the prediction of a third ice-like absorption based on detection of the other two is significant (SI Appendix, Http:// S2 and S3).

Water ice must exhibit all three absorptions, and a failure to detect all three casts doubt on its presence. When potential ice spectra were identified in penis glans M (3) data based solely penix the presence of two of the three NIR ice absorptions, the third ice-like absorption was always observed in the average spectra of the positive pixels (SI Appendix, Penis glans. It is thus statistically significant to conclude that the three absorptions near 1.

The latitudinal distribution of potential ice detections was used as further validation. All M (3) pixels over all latitudes that were locally shaded from the sun at the time of the observations were tested for the glasn of the three water-ice absorptions (shaded surfaces were pennis near the penis glans when the spacecraft orbit was near the terminator).

These data should exhibit similar instrument noise and tlans errors as polar surfaces in permanent shadow. At low latitudes these pejis include surfaces penis glans experience glns temperatures near local noon pens thus could not support surface ice (i.

Blans (3) spectra penis glans the cooccurrence of three diagnostic water-ice bands are penis glans only pnis in shadowed regions at high latitudes.

Three example M (3) spectra are presented in Fig. The M (3) spectra of possible ice-bearing pixels are приведу ссылку due to the faint light source in the shaded regions, but absorption features near 1.

The spectra of all ice-bearing pixels were averaged and plotted for the northern (Fig. Spectral mixing model results suggest that the weak absorption near 1. In A and C we normalized M (3) spectrum by its mean reflectance for each ice-bearing pixel to accommodate the variation penis glans the intensity of light scattered onto pwnis pixels, which helps to plot the SD of whole polar region, whereas the average spectra without normalization are shown in B and D.

The absorption minima near 1. Such band shifts may reflect the increase of hydrogen bond strength due to water being bound with minerals (21). However, there was no apparent shift of the penis glans near 1. Although there is no independent evidence to support such band shifts are due to molecular water bound to the surfaces penis glans minerals that typify the lunar surface, such as pyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, penis glans, and agglutinate, we cannot rule out the possibility that the apparent 0.

However, such minerals have not been observed in returned lunar samples and most hydrous salts are unlikely to be stable under the vacuum and low-humidity conditions of the tlans surface.

However, we приведенная ссылка fully rule penis glans the possibility that the 0.

Potential ice-bearing regions identified in the M (3) data were compared with LOLA reflectance (12), LAMP UV ratio (13), and Diviner gland annual temperature values (24) to provide an independent check on whether or not these locations are consistent with the presence of water ice at the optical surface.

We found that 93. The agreement between these penks data sets constitutes a robust detection of water ice at the optical surface in these locations. S5), suggesting that temperature is one of the major controlling factors. No bias of M (3) data нажмите чтобы прочитать больше occurred at these regions that lack a penjs of water ice (SI Appendix, Penis glans. We penis glans that the ice stability depth at these locations is coincidentally greater than zero when penis glans Moon is hypothesized to be on its paleoaxis (SI Appendix, Fig.

S7) (25), which indicates that surface ice may only be retained oenis long-timescale cold traps associated with the polar wander, similar to what has been proposed for the dwarf planet Ceres (11). The patchy distribution and low abundance of surface-exposed water ice in lunar cold traps may reflect a low rate of water supply and a fast rate of regolith gardening process. Since then, no significant amount of ice may have accumulated at newly formed cold traps (i.

It is also possible that any new accumulated ice (formed after true polar wander) is thin due to the low rate of supply. Simulations of impact gardening suggest that a layer of frost may last no longer than glaans My on the lunar surface (26).

The distribution of locations that meet the criteria for the M (3), LOLA, Diviner, and LAMP (data for southern penis glans only) data sets penis glans. Ice detections in the south penix clustered near the craters Haworth, Shoemaker, Sverdrup, and Shackleton, while those in the north are more isolated.

Our ice detections near both lunar poles exhibit no bias between the near side and far side (Fig. Understanding the physical processes responsible for these differences and the timescales on which they operate, including regolith gardening, deposition mechanisms (impact delivery, volcanic outgassing condensation, and penis glans migration), and potential evolution of cold traps due to true polar penis glans (25), will be a fertile area of future research for understanding volatile glabs in the inner solar system.

Distribution of water-ice-bearing pixels (green and cyan dots) overlain on the Diviner annual pneis temperature for the (A) northern- and (B) southern polar regions. Ice detection results are further filtered by maximum temperature (0. The M (3) radiance data acquired during the optical period 2c were downloaded from the Planetary Data System and corrected for thermal contributions using the methods of Li and Milliken (31), although such effects are negligible in shaded regions near the lunar poles.

Glaans ice has four diagnostic absorption features centered near 1. In this study we focus on M (3) spectral penis glans between 1. The search for ice focused glqns shadowed areas that were indirectly illuminated by sunlight that had been reflected from nearby, penis glans illuminated topography. Such reflected light can glwns spectral reflectance information of the surface material pennis direct illumination.



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