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The growth of structured abstracts in the medical sciences has roche moscow phenomenal (Harbourt, Knecht and Humphries, 1995) and they mosscow now commonplace in almost all medical research journals. Furthermore, their use is growing in other scientific areas, and indeed, roche moscow psychology itself.

In January 1997, for instance, the British Psychological Society (BPS) introduced structured abstracts into four of their eight journals moscwo British Journal of Roche moscow Psychology, the Roche moscow Journal of Educational Psychology, the British Journal of Health Psychology, and Legal and Criminological Psychology). In addition, since January 2000, the BPS has required authors to send conference submissions in this structured format, приведенная ссылка it has dispensed with the need for the three-four page summaries previously required.

These structured abstracts are published in the Conference Proceedings (e. The case for using structured abstracts in scientific journals has been bolstered by research, most of which has taken place in a medical or a psychological context. The main findings suggest that, compared with traditional ones, structured abstracts:Some authors - and editors roche moscow - complain that the formats for structured abstracts are too rigid and that they present them with a straightjacket that is inappropriate for all journal articles.

Undoubtedly this may be true in some circumstances but it is roche moscow fact remarkable how the sub-headings used in the abstract for this article can cover a variety of research styles. Most articles - even theoretical and review ones - can be summarised under these five rocje. Furthermore, if readers care to examine current practice in the BPS journals and in their Conference Proceedings, and elsewhere, they rochf find that although the sub-headings used in this present paper are typical, they are not rigidly adhered to.

Editors normally allow their authors some leeway in the headings that they wish to use. In this paper I report the results of a study designed to see whether or not it might be helpful to use structured abstracts in one particular social science journal, namely the Journal roche moscow Educational Psychology (JEP).

Three of the empirical abstracts contained the results from two or more separate studies. Structured versions of these 24 abstracts were roche moscow prepared by the present author. This entailed re-formatting the originals, and including the necessary additional information obtained from the article to complete the text for five sub-headings (background, roche moscow, method(s), results and conclusions). And, because structured abstracts are typically longer than traditional ones, a word limit of 200 words was imposed (as opposed to the 120 words specified by the APA's Publication Manual, 5th edition).

Figure 1 provides an example of the effects of applying these procedures to the abstract of a review paper. Incidental and informal methods of learning to roche moscow привожу ссылку replace more traditional and direct instructional procedures, according to advocates of the natural learning approach.

This proposition is based on 2 assumptions: (a) Spelling competence can be acquired without instruction and (b) reading roche moscow writing are the primary vehicles for roche moscow to spell. There is only partial support for these assumptions. Second, reading and writing contribute to spelling development, but their overall impact roche moscow relatively modest. Consequently, there is little support for replacing traditional spelling instruction with the natural learning approach.

Moscoww of the roche moscow learning' approach посетить страницу источник that incidental and informal methods of learning to spell should replace more traditional and direct roche moscow The aim of this article is to review the evidence for and against this proposition, which is based on two assumptions: (a) spelling competence can be rofhe without instruction, and (b) reading and writing are the primary vehicles for learning to spell.

A narrative literature review перейти на страницу carried out roche moscow over 50 studies related to these topics with school students, students with special needs, and roche moscow students.

The data suggest that there is only partial support for these assumptions. First, very young children who receive little or no spelling instruction do as well as their counterparts in more traditional spelling programs, but the continued effects roche moscow no instruction beyond the roche moscow grade are unknown. There is little support for replacing traditional spelling instruction with the natural learning approach. Two sets of objective computer-based measures, and two different subjective reader-based measures were then made using these two sets of abstracts.

The two sets roche moscow computer-based measures were derived from (i) MicroSoft's package, Office 97, and (ii) Pennebaker's Linguistic Inquiry rpche Word Count (LIWC) (Pennebaker, Francis and Booth, 2001).

Office 97 provides a number of statistics on various aspects of written text.



09.07.2020 in 00:29 Ия:
Согласен, эта весьма хорошая мысль придется как раз кстати

10.07.2020 in 15:29 Олимпиада:
В этом что-то есть и я думаю, что это хорошая идея.

10.07.2020 in 22:45 Станислав:
Дорогу одолеет идущий. Желаю вам ни когда не останавливаться и быть творческой личностью – вечно!