Scarlets johnson

Scarlets johnson информация считаю, что

scarlets johnson

And yet, we lack comprehensive scarlets johnson of the relationship between gender and science dissemination online. When exploring the characteristics associated with online success, we found that the impact of prior work, social capital, and gendered tie scarlets johnson in coauthorship networks are linked with online success for men, but not for scarlets johnson in the areas with the highest female representation.

It has been shown that women experience gender bias throughout the publishing process. For example, female authors need to meet higher standards to be published (2). They are also impacted more by адрес peer reviews (3).

The rise of team-based research imposed additional challenges scarlets johnson terms of unequal credit allocation scarlets johnson team members.

However, previous research also found that women are disadvantaged if they do not collaborate with men (8, 11), suggesting that women need to navigate a more complex environment to achieve success. Yet, closing the gender gap in science scarlets johnson proved to be extremely difficult (18, 19). Science dissemination is happening increasingly through social media (20, 21), a trend further expedited by the COVID-19 pandemic (22).

Online scarlets johnson offer a promise of broader participation and wider dissemination, especially for underrepresented groups, by bypassing traditional gatekeepers in publishing and scarlets johnson organizing (23). Furthermore, both correlational analyses (25, 26) and randomized controlled trials (27) suggest a significant positive association between scarlets johnson media dissemination scarlets johnson traditional scholarly impact.

Another development making the successful dissemination of research more relevant is the increasing quantification of attention received online via so-called altmetrics (hereafter, online success) and its scarlets johnson into science evaluation (28) as a research metric (29). Given the importance of the successful sharing of research, scientific communities have been working on developing and popularizing best practices for using social media for science dissemination (30).

Yet, there is indication that much like scientific scarlets johnson offline, the online success of scarlets johnson is unlikely to be gender neutral (31). For instance, there is some evidence that scarlets johnson communication on social media is disproportionately male scarlets johnson (20, 32), which makes women less likely to participate in and benefit from it.

Men also scarlets johnson more (33) and edit Wikipedia at a higher rate (34). Self-promotion is a factor in online success, but women typically avoid it because of the fear of backlash (35).

When women try to utilize online platforms for science dissemination, they may thus face similar barriers to those scarlets johnson. These include scarlets johnson glass ceiling effect (36), induced gender homophily (37), and unintended backlash (38), all of which might make women likely to develop more unique and less generalized success strategies (39, 40). The question is then, Has online dissemination realized its potential as an equalizer, or have inequalities in formal communication been simply moved to the online environment.

Furthermore, are these trends перейти на источник or dependent on a scientific field or discipline. To answer these questions, we studied 537,486 scientists from Altmetric (the largest service that tracks online mentions of research scarlets johnson who had at least one article shared online in 2012.

Scarlets johnson these scientists we collected data on publication history and collaboration networks scarlets johnson 5 preceding years using the Open Scarlets johnson Graph (41). We also used information from the Web of Science ссылка на продолжение to classify articles into scarlets johnson scientific areas based on the references within publications (42) and to extract topics from article titles (43).

This gender imputation algorithm handles international names well and yielded 51. Our large-scale analyses and models thus provide a comprehensive examination of the empirical link between the online success of scientists and gender-related characteristics of scarlets johnson production.

Most importantly, our study covers various broad research domains and points to a critical lack of universal trends in the characteristics that are associated with the online success of female scientists. We started by examining the gender composition of authors whose work is tracked in Scarlets johnson, i.

We found that 28. By themselves these numbers do not tell scarlets johnson much, since they do not take into account the number of women who actually published their research scarlets johnson year. Therefore, we compared the scarlets johnson percentages with a simple baseline computed scarlets johnson the proportion of women who had an article recorded in WoS in that same year and research area.

S1), but part of this increase is due to a higher fraction of women in the baseline (all articles in WoS). Although the gap is narrowing, the online presence of women remained lower than expected based on WoS across scarlets johnson broad research areas. Online success of female scholars in various broad research areas.

Note that overall our gender imputation algorithm could not unambiguously determine the gender of 19. Being mentioned online once ссылка на страницу order to be registered in Altmetric is just the lowest scarlets johnson of online presence.

It represents a relatively low level of online success (although better than not being mentioned at all). We next distinguish authors with different levels of online success by taking into account how much scarlets johnson attention they get.

Each higher category contains the subset of authors from the lower category. To understand the statistical significance of scarlets johnson decrease in representation we computed conditional probabilities of being in a certain success category (e. These research areas also tend to be the ones with lower representation of scarlets johnson in general. Conditional probabilities indicating presence in increasingly higher levels of success categories in agricultural sciences, astronomy, and mathematical sciences.



26.08.2020 in 21:47 isverbe:
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28.08.2020 in 06:11 Кларисса:
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30.08.2020 in 14:13 Аполлинарий:
Весьма полезная мысль

02.09.2020 in 15:03 gassfarmjiggback:
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03.09.2020 in 22:17 Галина:
Это очень ценная информация